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Solar power generation is a technology that converts solar to electric energy directly, using the solar cell that generates electricity by photovoltaic effect when exposed to sunlight.  Solar power generation doesn’t have any moving part like a motor or any by-product destroying the environment like noise.

A solar power generation system consists of modules that are made up of solar cells, storage batteries, and power conversion devices.  It generates power using solar energy and can avoid environmental problems caused by the use of thermal power plants such as greenhouse gas production, atmospheric pollution, acid rain, and so on. In addition, solar power generation can easily apply to places where men reside compared to wind power and water power, other environment-friendly renewable power generation.
Benefits Cons
- Clean and unlimited source of energy
- Power generated for places in need as much as needed
- Easy maintenance, possible automation
- Long life (more than 20 years)
- Generated electricity depending on solar radiation in each
- Low energy density requiring a large area to install
- Limited installation area, high system cost
- High initial investment and unit cost of power
- This is a photovoltaic cell manufactured for converting solar energy into electric energy, using the photovoltaic by the photoelectric effect when light is irradiated on the contact space between metals and semiconductors or the PN junction of semiconductors

- A selenium photocell and a copper sulfite photovoltaic use the contact between metals and semiconductors while silicon photocell uses semiconductor’s PN junction which is used as solar cell.
Solar cells are semiconductors represented by silicon, naturally developed by the development of semiconductor technologies and the properties of semiconductors.

Solar cell structure is a junction between N(negative) and P(positive) types of semiconductors and the boundary between the two semiconductors is called PN-junction.

When sunlight reaches this solar cell, the sunlight is absorbed into the solar cell, and by the energy the absorbed sunlight, particles with electricity of a hole (+) and an electron (-) are generated in the semiconductor and each moves freely in the solar cell; however, the electron (-) gathers around N-type semiconductor while the hole (+) to P-type semiconductor, and electric potential is generated, so a current flows when load such as a bulb or a motor is connected to an electrode which is attached to both the front and the back, which is the principle of solar power generation by PN-junction.
A typical crystalline silicon solar cell is made based on a P-type silicon semiconductor to which boron is added, by diffusing phosphorous on the surface and forming an N-type silicon semiconductor layer. An electric field is generated by this PN-junction. When light comes into this solar cell, the electron (-) and the hole (+) in the semiconductor are excited so that they move freely inside the semiconductor. After moving freely, when coming into the electric field generated by the PN-junction, the electron (-) reaches N-type semiconductor while the hole (+), P-type semiconductor. As they form electrodes on the surfaces of the P-type semiconductor and N-type semiconductor making the electron flow to the external circuit, electric current is generated.
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